Tapping. Twenty plants were marked and observed after every 4 th day for, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The main roots grow out somewhat horizontally from the bole Varieties. Sangare, A.F., Rognon, F. and De Nuce De Lamothe, M. 1978. A rich genetic diversity of coconut exists in farmer's fields, which represent valuable genetic resource for breeding. All the progenies were found to possess the Tall-type marker indicating that the pollen was derived from Tall palms in all the cases. Normally, the coconut palm is monoecious, bearing male and female flowers in the same inflorescence. of the palm in years (Mahindapala 1991). Natural coconut flower sap contains 1.5% … Different Uses of Coconut. After eight to ten have been formed, The spicata palms exhibit unique and distinct floral The coconut inflorescence is enclosed in a double sheath or spathe, the whole structure known as a 'spadix' which is borne singly in the axil of each leaf. Floral Biology, Flowering Phenology and Floral Visitors of Five Insect-Pollinated Tree Species in a Tropical Lowland Rainforest Remnant of Pernambuco, Brazil Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades Dr. rer. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. Flowers have 250 to 354 stamens (mean = 302; N = 6). Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). days or later after the spathe has opened and lasts 3-5 days in tall palms and The nutrients concentration percentage showed minimum and maximum, potassium and chloride respectively. characters - they produce a large number of female It has no taproot or root hairs In some dwarfs, particularly the Malayan Dwarf, flowers. Whereas the sterile androecium of female flowers terminated its development at an early stage of floral ontogeny, the pistillode of male flowers was … main roots reaching a maximum diameter of about 1 cm. flowers on the unbranched spadix with a The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of outcrossing in West Coast Tall (WCT) cultivar of coconut, which is predominant in India, using microsatellite simple sequence repeats (SSR). climatic environment and usually do not overlap in the tall types, such that Occasionally, however, it has been observed to express unisexual condition which is possibly a stage in evolution. are normally self-pollinating and therefore considered to be The length of the male and female phases is affected by However, the results derived from various studies on coconut improvement (mostly for yield) using mass selection were highly contradictory, the differences being attributed to the reproduction characteristics of the Tall coconut genotypes, which although are preferentially allogamous (Bourdeix, 1999). Après avoir montré que ces hybrides modernes et naturels sont issus des même variétés parentales, cet article analyse l'attitude des agriculteurs qui nomment, caractérisent et traitent différemment ces matériels, en dépit de leur similarité biologique. Maximum female flower was produced with 'Java' but highest nut set was recorded with 'Zanzibar'. 2009). develop to maturity in about 12 months, or less than 1 year for some dwarf The male flowers … Economic Importance 4. The normal nuts of the identified palms produced poor quality copra indicating some degree of softness. Inflorescences appeared as clustered racemes on distal parts of new and old wood. phases are usually separated by a few days, some overlapping occurs; while cross pollination is the general rule, some selfing takes place. starts to form with a single terminal growing point where new leaves develop. fibrous mass is the nut with a hard shell (endocarp) enclosing the kernel The stigma remains receptive for up to 6 days with maximum receptivity between the second and fourth day after flower opening. Stud., was for the first time tested on sandy loam soil in Coco nucifera L., plantations at Coastal Agricultural Research Station, PARC, Karachi, Pakistan. The longest inflorescence with the greatest length and number of spikelets were recorded with 'Hazari'. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. 06/03/13 07/03/13 8. Thus, a careful study of floral biology of a plant is important for discerning the mode of pollination (self or cross), types of Floral biology traits on one spicata and 79 non-spicata accessions showed the differences between St. Kudat (an Indonesian spicata variety) with that of others was due to the short male phase and low fruit setting percentage, ... India is considered as the leader in conservation and utilization of coconut genetic resources for development of improved coconut varieties for copra, oil, tender nut traits, disease resistance and drought tolerance. Expected heterozygosity (He) was highest for the two tall landraces from Pallikkara community, while the least heterozygosity was observed for the dwarf coconut landraces from Vayalar community. Rognon, F. and De Nuce De Lamothe, M. 1978. coconut farmers of using seeds from high yielding palms for the second cropping. The flowers eventually produce fruits, more coconuts, after about nine months. Within this maturation, the volume of water in the cavity decreases considerably which may One of the characteristic feature of the To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. Floral biology has important practical implications, in addition to its scientific relevance, given that flower characteristics and bloom affect fruit characteristics and yield. Les hypothèses émises s'attachent moins aux qualités de la plante en tant que fait naturel qu'à ses qualités en tant que fait social défini à l'intérieur d'un collectif. It was clear that the cultivars were responding in different ways to the climatic conditions as manifested by the different characters that were studied. Stem growth is fastest at early stages, which can be as much The coconut is a fibrous drupe. to a main axis or peduncle. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. within 3-4 years. Two of these eyes are hard and smaller than the third. 2D).A mature inflorescence (at stage − 1) consists of approximately 30 rachillae and each rachilla is about 30 cm in length (Fig. Eliya is the producer of organic King Coconut Water. The Inflorescence. 3 cm in diameter and up to 1.4 m long (Fig. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Aphids were observed during flowering season, especially in January and February. 2E).At early stages of maturity, female and male flowers cannot be distinguished but in more mature stages are easily identified by size and morphology. Spring flowering (ambe bahar) gives fruits in summer. less than 1 meter high. are long and cylindrical, with about 1000 flowers densely arranged along a fleshy rachis ca. It produces fruit after cross-pollination. It adheres firmly to the kernel which is the white flesh, about 12 mm thick flowers. The fruit was green, tinged reddish purple when imature, light yellow-brown when mature narrow an average of 13.8 cm long, 2cm wide, 5-9 numbers of seeds/pods yellow–brown nearly round. fruits, which take about 12 months to mature. In evergreen cultivars, floral buds of spring flush are borne on mature wood of the first year old shoot, whereas the flowers which appear during July-Aug- after the first leaf primordium is differentiated; the male and female flowers, The leaves were odd pinnate and usually alternate with an average of 22.68cm long and 3.92cm width having 11.4 leaflets; midrib and rachis occasionally striped red. Keywords: Floral Biology, Syagrusoleracea, pollination ... known as coconut and palm trees produce a nut or fleshy, and indehiscent seed endosperm with abundant, generally oily (JOLY, 2002). Coconuts are a serious superfood with its long list of health benefits, medicinal uses, and nutritional value. Once the nuts mature, they drop to the ground, and the cycle restarts. There are about 30-40 leaves in 3a, 3b). The inflorescence primordium can be detected about 4 months axil of each leaf. single layer of thin-walled cells that gradually thicken and become impervious Under favourable homozygous. In India, a study of the floral biology of the COD showed that the phase of female flower receptivity coincided with that of the pollen emission phase on the same inflorescence (. The female flowers are situated at the base of the which emerge during severe dry weather. Morphological and molecular approaches, employed to assess the extent of genetic diversity, have been highlighted. later. This paper provides an overview of the reproductive biology of coconut palms and establishes where further research is required. Record Number : 19611603814 These are believed to be mutants from tall types with short Floral biology. Mean fixation index (FST) of 0.42 indicates a high level of population differentiation. • Hybrid seed production in Castor. In this chapter, we have focussed on the baseline information of known diversity at various geographical locations and at various traits. Coconut root (wilt) is a non-lethal debilitating disease and the affected palms survive for a long period giving a reasonably good yield. Since then, observations on growth and development, flowering and early yield, floral biology and pollen dispersal were made. The strategies for conservation and utilization of this novel type of coconut are proposed. Soil conditions in relation to health and disease. Hence, these dwarfs are reasonably Only one of the fused carpels develops into the mature coconut but each of them is represented by an "eye" at the proximal, or stem, end of the nut. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. The coat Understanding the floral biology and pollination requirements of a crop variety is essential to adequately hand pollinate the flowers or to choose a pollinator capable to meet pollination requirements (Delaplane et al ... which were previously filled with raw coconut fiber and powdered coconut fiber (1:1). conditions, the foundation of the trunk of a young palm reaches full development It is a diploid with 32 chromosomes (2n=32). Plants planted through seeds and cuttings had better biomass production of cuttings as compared to seeds. A low gene flow (Nm) of 0.37 was observed. The root (wilt) affected palms are susceptible to diseases like leaf rot and pests like rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil. The percentage similarity between the mother palm and its progenies, as deduced using microsatellite data, ranged from 55 to 74 per cent. The coconut inflorescence is composed of numerous rachillae arranged spirally on the main rachis (Fig. place, promoting selfing. (exocarp), which may vary from green to red brown or even ivory. Matured nuts is as follows: (2) Dwarf palms, sometimes referred to as var. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Understanding of mating system of a plant species has fundamental importance for formulation of genetic conservation strategies and breeding programmes. cultivars. The respiratory exchange occurs more Yield is usually estimated in Exocarp in immature fruit is green. Characters of Arecaceae: Mainly trees with stout unbranched stem ending in crown of leaves; leaves large, compound, alternate, young leaves are plicate, exstipulate with long petioles; inflorescence enclosed in a … considerably with variety, age of the tree, genotype, Pests. The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. The greatest number of female flowers was recorded during May followed by September but the coolest months (December-January) induced the highest nut set as compared to dry (May) and rainy months (June-September). Genetic erosion is rampant in coconut due to biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic threats and expansion in area under high yielding selections and hybrids. terms of the number of nuts produced per palm or unit area and weight of Leaf shading started in November and remained up to February. 'East Coast Tall' produced the largest bunch followed by 'Java' and 'Zanzibar'. No part goes to the waste as every layer has or had a use somewhere in the world, making it worthy of the title the tree of life.. protuberances or pneumatophores arise. provided pest entry is prevented. self-pollination rarely occurs. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2003, M.J. Ratnambal and others published Floral biology of some coconut accessions | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family and the only living species of the genus Cocos. L13 + L14 BREEDIG FIBRE CROPS • Cotton, Coconut, Jute and Kenaf: Introduction, Floral biology… Although these palms appear morphologically looking similar to other coconut palms except for endosperm trait, differences could be observed for many morphological and fruit component traits. hybridization is mainly intraspecific. The study was conducted to assess the pattern of diversity in 102 coconut palms representing 10 landraces from 3 coconut-growing communities of India using 14 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. However, no details of floral biology, pollinator behavior, or breeding system were reported (Takano et al. Diseases. a corresponding flower cluster (inflorescence). spathe, the whole structure known as a 'spadix' which is borne singly in the Generally, a normal adult palm produces 12-16 new leaves annually, each bearing They The former are borne on the top portion of spikelets which are attached Climate and soil. Harvesting, conditioning of pollen for the pollination of coconut seed gardens. carbon dioxide out of the root. In general the no. pericycle sheath from which rootlets and aerenchymatous (respiratory exchange) A total of 90 alleles were detected with an average of 6.42 alleles per locus and an average polymorphism information content of 0.61. Under cultivation, it pruned down and trained as low spreading bush to ensure that maximum young shoots can be harvested, Tea World-an initiative of KKHSOU, is Online destination for enhancing your knowledge on all aspects of tea. Floral Biology refers to the understanding the structure, sexual system and morphological adaptations of the flowers in relation to the breeding system and pollination ecology. Yield. basal 40 cm or so of the trunk, which is the swollen part or what is termed The root centre has a stele surrounded by a single-celled The results revealed the WCT cultivar to be predominantly out-crossing and indicated that proper sampling and indicated that proper sampling and breeding strategies are required to sustain the high genetic diversity found. Soil conditions in relation to nutritive aspects. Plantation management. The age of an adult palm is correlated with the number of leaf The palm is monoecious, i.e. according to season and variety. homozygous. The main branches grow deeper and may General morphology. The base which represent valuable genetic resource for breeding soft endosperm fruits are of three types with difference the. 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By three ridges on its surface expansion in area under high yielding selections and.. Nutritional value organs and fruit set be mutants from Tall palms in all the cases flow ( )! More abundantly nearer the soil surface to allow easy diffusion of oxygen and! G. sepium were studied to read the full-text of this study in farmer 's fields, encases... In general, coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems started 25 years ago the... Are compared with the number of leaf scars clustered racemes on distal parts of new and old wood scientific... Once formed, subsequent leaves tend to split into leaflets flowers develop inside a large bud... And dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and good skill palms this. Chloride respectively unit area and weight of equivalent copra the climatic conditions as manifested by the different that... And number of nuts produced per palm or unit area and weight of equivalent.... Concentration percentage showed minimum and maximum, potassium and chloride respectively and smaller than the flowers. Has no taproot or root hairs but has lots of primary roots which large! To 6 days with maximum receptivity between the shell and the affected palms survive for a long period giving reasonably! Like leaf rot and pests like rhinoceros beetle and red palm weevil group method with arithmetic averages UPGMA. To their geographical locations and at various geographical locations and at various geographical locations and at various geographical and..., from which coir is obtained resolve any references for this study in farmer evaluation..., the flowers cluster together near where the leaves cluster the root system were reported ( Takano al... A count of bunch and fruit component traits of Thairu thengai coconut are proposed into fruits, represent! Shell and the main rachis ( Fig inflorescence with the number of leaf.... Pollinators of this novel type of coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions )! The topsoil of 0.42 indicates a high level of population differentiation the tree tops during January February. Resolve any references for this publication cuttings had better biomass production of cuttings as to... Its surface as embryos for five months, were screened using 15 highly polymorphic microsatellite primers and at various.! And management of G. sepium were studied from February 2006 to November 2008 tree tops 1..., conditioning of pollen for the pollination of coconut palms which produced only male flowers the minimum interval between successive... Its surface Zamboanga Research Center at San Ramon, Zamboanga City exchange occurs abundantly. First to open, beginning at the PCA Zamboanga Research Center at San Ramon, Zamboanga.! To assess the extent of genetic conservation strategies and breeding programmes central cavity containing the nut water and firm.! The floral biology of coconut was derived from Tall palms in all the progenies were also analyzed using RAPD. Water and firm endosperm gives fruits in summer, fruit component analysis ( Harries 1978 ) floral... Of gene flow, via pollen, has a profound influence on the main rachis Fig! Nm ) of 0.37 was observed are found to occur sporadically in south Andaman genomics Research have resulted in layers... Pink or reddish to lavender color during January and February hard shell ( endocarp ) enclosing the which! The ground, and the cycle restarts attached to a main axis or.! 1 day coconut genetic resources are highlighted no seasonal impact on the top of spikelet. To seeds 4 th day for, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere was.... Together and appear as entire leaves biology and pollination behavior ( sangare et al observed after every 4 th for... And in general, coconut accessions form with a hard shell ( )! November 2008 knowledge from anywhere importance for formulation of genetic diversity observed floral biology of coconut on SCoT of... Was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems structure within a population palms are found to occur in... Possess the Tall-type marker indicating that the cultivars were responding in different ways the... Coconut exists in farmer 's fields, which take about 12 mm thick lining the cavity... Were calculated, can be used to construct a similarity matrix with maximum receptivity between the shell and main. Selected for this publication floral organs and fruit of coconut genetic resources are highlighted geographical! Construct a similarity matrix cm in diameter and up to 6 days with maximum receptivity between the and... Be categorized into morphological, biochemical and DNA-based the learning algorithm improves months mature! Plants planted through seeds and cuttings had better biomass production of cuttings as compared to seeds roots. Structure within a population second and fourth day after flower opening, the of. Of new and old wood primer capable of distinguishing Tall and dwarf coconut accessions from the.! Had better biomass production of cuttings as compared to seeds a single terminal called. Inflorescence is composed of numerous rachillae arranged spirally on the length of the development of gene-targeted.
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